Human Rights Arbitrator



Introduction to Human Rights Law

A) What is Human Rights?

            Historical Evolution of the Concept of Human Rights - Milestones Over the Centuries - Rule of Law, Equality, Protection of Minorities and Democratic Principles - Philosophical Foundations on Human Rights Concepts.

B) Why do we need Human Rights?
            No disregard and contempt of Human Rights - Highest     aspiration of the common people - A social and international order - Basis for just and humane world.

C) Contemporary human Rights issues

            Various types of Human Rights Violations - AIDS / HIV - Armed  - Asylum - Bonded Labour - Cultural Rights - Death Penalty -   Detention - Disappearances - Extradition - Female Genital Mutilation - Gender related persecution - Genocide - homelessness - Poverty, unemployment forced migration, displacement, caste violence, atrocities against dalits and adivasis.

D) Leader’s view on Human Rights

            Aung San Suu Kyi, Belo, Bishop Carlos Filipe Ximenes, Peter Benensen, Elena Bonnr, Jimmy Carter, Reve Carin, Fang Lizhi, Richard B. Goldstone, Tenzin Gyatso, His Holiness the Fourteenth Dalai Lama – Banard Konchnes, Raphael Lemkin, Mahatma Gandhi, Nelson Mandela, Ambedkar, Bhudda and Thiruvalluvar.

E) Worldwide Incidents

          Latin America and Pressure Groups - Islam and Alliance of Civilizations - Middle East and Western Encounters - Somalia’s  crisis - Bosnia and European Countries - Libya and Neighbours – Genocide in Sri Lanka.


Rise and growth of Human Rights Movement

Unit - I :

          Definition of Human Rights - The contemporary significance of Human Rights - Historical origins and development of the theory and practice of Human Rights - Principles of Human Rights - Western political ideology and Human Rights - Magna Carta - Petition of Rights - Bill of Rights - French Revolution – Declaration of American Independence UN Charter - UDHR.

Unit - II :

          Type of Human Rights - The Liberal, Conservative and Social outlook - Impact of World War II on Human Rights - Early Ethical contribution of Human Rights - Equality - Fraternity - Violation against the suppressed communities, Tribes / Indigenous Peoples, Women, Children, Persons with Disabilities, Transgenders, Migrant Workers / Unorganized Sector and Social Justice.

Unit - III :

          United Nations Organization and Human Rights - United National Commission for Human Rights - Vienna Conference -  UNO’s 50th Anniversary and attention of Human Rights - ECOSOC, UNESCO, ILO & UN Commission for Refugees - Composition, Procedure and  Functioning - Universal Declaration and International Conventions on Human Rights Subcommissions of UNO - Thematic working groups - Special Rapporteurs.

Unit - IV :

          Socio - Economic Rights - Development of a socialist perspective on Human Rights - Globalization and its Impact on Human Rights - Promoting Human Rights in the 21st Century - Human Rights in the era of Globalization - Need for Human Rights Education.

Unit - V :

          Specialized Agencies - International Commissions and Committees - Red Cross etc., Non Governmental Organizations - Human Rights and Social Justice - Contemporary Violations on Human Rights - Human Rights Challenges today and the Responses of Civil Society Groups.


Human Rights Practices in India

A)  Recent trends in the field of Human Rights

B)  Building on Human Rights

C)  History of the establishment of Human Rights Institutions in India

D)  Government - State Sponsored Commissions - National Human Rights Commission - Composition, Powers and Functions

E)  Powers and Functions of State Human Rights Commission, National Women Commission, State Women Commission, National Commission for SCs and STs, National Commission for Minorities and State Commission for Minorities

F)  The Role of NGOs in Protection and Promotion of Human Rights




Concept and Theories in Human Rights

Unit - I :

          Historical Evolution of the Concept of Human Rights - Milestones Over the Centuries - Rule of Law, Equality, Protection of Minorities and Democratic Principles - Philosophical Foundations on Human Rights Concepts.

Unit - II :

          Classification of Human Rights - Civil and Political Rights, Socio - Economic and Cultural Rights, Collective Rights - Children, Women, Indigenous People, Refugees, Migrant Workers, Prisoners, Dalits, Transgenders and Persons with Disabilities. 

Unit - III :

          UN Charter - Existing Theories of International Human Rights, Co-Operation - UN Declaration on the Rights to Development (1986) - Vienna Declaration and Program of Action (1998) - UN World Conference on Women - Mexico (1975), Copenhagen, Denmark (1995).

Unit - IV :

          Human Rights and the Indian Constitution - Preamble - Right to equality - Abolition of Untouchability - Right to  freedom - Protection to persons arrested under any Penal  Law - Preventive Detention - Right to Life and Personal Liberty - Right against Exploitation - Right to freedom of Religion - Educational Rights of Minorities - Right to Constitutional remedies -  Role of Courts of Law.


Constitutional Provisions and Social Legislations in India

A)  Preamble of the Constitution of India - Sovereign / Secular /   Socialist / Democratic / Republic

B)  Fundamental Rights Part III of the Indian Constitution

C)  Part IV - Directive Principles of State Policy

D)  Social Legislations enacted in India to protect the weaker sections, Dalits and Adivasis
      1. PCR (Protection of Civil Rights) Act, 1955
      2. SC/ST  (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989

E)  Women : Dowry Prohibition Act - Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act - Indecent Representative of Women (Prohibition Act) - Equal Remuneration Act - Maternity Benefit Act - Domestic Violence Act

F)  Children : Child Labour Abolition and Regulation Act - Bonded Labour Abolition Act - Children pledging or (Labour) Act, Juvenile Justice Act, Right to Education Act

G) Labourers : Migrant workers - Bonded Labour Abolition Act (1976) - Minimum Wages Act - ESI Act - Payment of Bonus Act - Factories Act - Apprenticeship Act - Contract Labour (Abolition and Regulation Act) - Workmen Compensation Act.

Emerging Trends in Human Rights

Unit - I :

State Violence : Custodial Torture - Prison Violence - Encounter  Deaths - Illegal Detentions - Extra Judicial Killings - Disappearances - Violations by the Armed Forces - Death Penalty.

Unit - II :

Violation by Not State Actors : Discrimination because of AIDS / HIV - Bonded Labour - Female Genital Mutilation - Gender Related Persecution - Girl Children - Genocide - Homelessness - Indigenous People - Internally Displaced    Persons - Corporal Punishment, Caste Violence, Atrocities against Dalits and Caste Discrimination.

Unit - III :

Conflict Situations : Child Soldiers - Rape Victims - Torture - Slavery - Landmines - Illegal Detentions - Extra Judicial Executions.


National and International Mechanism of Rights

A)  An analysis of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

B)  International Covenants and Conventions - ICCPR - ICESCR - Optional Protocols - ICERD - CRC - CEDAW - CAT -  Refugee Conventions - Declaration on the Rights to Development.

C)  Protection of Human Rights Act of 1993 - National Human Rights Commission - State Human Rights Commissions - National Women Commission - State Women Commissions - National Commission for SC & ST - National Minority’s Commission - State Level Minority’s Commission - National Commission for Child Protection.



          Take up any one of the Human Rights issues. Trace out the History and the circumstance that lead to the issue - Impact of the issue on the communities - Through a case study, Generalize conclusion by samplings collected following various methods of tools.


          List out the various violations in the issue identified and specify the legal remedies within the framework of Human Rights Law (Minimum Fifty Pages of Project).


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